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Teenage Pregnancy, Birth, & Abortion - 07/11/2008

Facts 4 0 S I E C U S R E P O R T V O L U M E 3 0 , N U M B E R 3

15 became pregnant compared with 4 per 1,000 in 199020 • In 1997, 99.1 per 1,000 Hispanic women 15 to 17 years of age became pregnant compared with 101 per 1,000 in 199021 • In 1997, 223.7 per 1,000 Hispanic women 18 to 19 years of age became pregnant compared with 231.4 per 1,000 in 199022 BIRTH Like pregnancy rates, birth rates among adolescents in the United States have dropped in recent years. However, the rate continues to be more than four times that of many industrialized nations. • In 2000, the United States had 48.7 births per 1,000 women 15 to 19 years of age. According to the latest available data, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Italy, Japan, the Netherlands, Spain, Sweden, and Switzerland each had less than 10 births per 1,000 women 15 to 19 years of age.23 • The birth rate for females 10 to 14 years of age remained unchanged in 2000 with 0.9 births per 1,000. However, the number of births to females 10 to 14 years of age dropped 6 percent from 1999 to 2000, to 8,519; the lowest total reported in any year since 1966 (8,128).24 • Between 1999 and 2000, the birth rate for females 15 to 17 years of age declined 5 percent to 27.4 per 1,000, an all-time low, and 29 percent per 1,000 from 1991 (38.7) to 200025 • In 2000, the birth rate for females 18 to 19 years of age declined 1 percent to 79.2 per 1,000. Since 1992,when the rate reached its recent high (94.5), it has declined 16 percent and is at its lowest point in more than a decade (78.5 in 1987).26 • The birth rate for females 15 to 19 years of age declined 2 percent to 48.5 per 1,000 in 2000, another record low for the nation.This rate has declined 22 percent from 1991 when the rate reached a peak (62.1).27 • From 1991 to 2000, birth rates for Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, and “other” Hispanic teenagers fell by 6 to 13 percent each, while rates for American Indian and Asian Pacific Islander teenagers fell 20 to 21 percent, rates for non-Hispanic White teens fell 24 percent, and rates for African American teenagers fell 31 percent. The rate for African American teenagers in 2000 is an historic low (data available since 1960).28 • In 1995, 22 percent of women 20 through 24 years of age in the United States had a child before age 20 in comparison to:29 o 1996—Sweden 4 percent o 1994—France 6 percent o 1995—Canada 11 percent o 1990-1991—Great Britain 15 percent BIRTH RATES BY RACE/ETHNICITY In recent years, birth rates among all races/ethnicities have declined, with young African American women experiencing the largest drop among all races/ethnicities. All Women • In 2000, the birth rate for women 10 to 14 years of age was 0.9 per 1,000 compared with 1.4 per 1,000 in 199030 • In 2000, the birth rate for women 15 to 17 years of age was 27.4 per 1,000 compared with 37.5 per 1,000 in 199031 • In 2000, the birth rate for women 18 to 19 years of age was 79.2 per 1,000 compared with 88.6 per 1,000 in 199032 White Women • In 2000, the birth rate for White women 10 to 14 years of age was 0.6 per 1,000 compared with 0.7 per 1,000 in 199033 • In 2000, the birth rate for White women 15 to 17 years of age was 23.6 per 1,000 compared with 29.5 per 1,000 in 199034 • In 2000, the birth rate for White women 18 to 19 years of age was 72.7 per 1,000 compared with 78.0 per 1,000 in 199035 African American Women • In 2000, the birth rate for African American women 10 to 14 years of age was 2.4 per 1,000 compared with 4.9 per 1,000 in 199036 • In 2000, the birth rate for African American women 15 to 17 years of age was 50.4 per 1,000 compared with 82.3 per 1,000 in 199037 • In 2000, the birth rate for African American women 18 to 19 years of age was 121.3 per 1,000 compared with 152.9 per 1,000 in 199038 American Indian Women • In 2000, the birth rate for American Indian women 10 to 14 years of age was 1.3 per 1,000 compared with 1.6 per 1,000 in 199039 • In 2000, the birth rate for American Indian women 15 to 17 years of age was 39.6 per 1,000 compared with 48.5 per 1,000 in 199040 • In 2000, the birth rate for American Indian women 18 to 19 years of age was 113.1 per 1,000 compared with 129.3 per 1,000 in 199041 Asian or Pacific Islander Women • In 2000, the birth rate for Asian or Pacific Islander women 10 to 14 years of age was 0.3 per 1,000 compared with 0.7 per 1,000 in 199042 • In 2000, the birth rate for Asian or Pacific Islander women F E B R U A R Y / M A R C H 2 0 0 2 S I E C U S R E P O R T 4 1 15 to 17 years of age was 11.5 per 1,000 compared with 16 per 1,000 in 199043 • In 2000, the birth rate for Asian or Pacific Islander women 18 to 19 years of age was 37 per 1,000 compared with 40.2 per 1,000 in 199044 Unmarried Women • During 1999-2000, birth rates for unmarried women 15 to 17 years of age declined 4 percent to 24.4 per 1,00045 • During 1999-2000 the birth rate for unmarried women 18 to 19 years of age dropped by approximately 1 percent to 62.9 per 1,00046 • Between 1999 and 2000, birth rates for unmarried non- Hispanic women 15 to 19 years of age fell 4 percent and the rates for unmarried African American women 15 to 19 years of age fell 2 percent while the rate for Hispanic women 15 to 19 years of age increased approximately 1 percent47 BIRTH RATES BY AGE AND RACE OF FATHER There is very little information available regarding males involved with teen pregnancies and births. • In 2000, the birth rate for all males 15 to 19 years of age was 20.2 per 1,000 compared with 23.5 per 1,000 in 199048 • In 2000, the birth rate for all White males 15 to 19 years of age was 16.8 per 1,000 compared with 18.1 per 1,000 in 199049 • In 2000, the birth rate for all African American males 15 to 19 years of age was 40.1 per 1,000 compared with 55.2 per 1,000 in 199050 ABORTION Not all states collect data on abortion. Therefore, it is not possible to track trends for the entire country. Based on the data that is available, abortions rates are declining. Still, as with adolescent pregnancy and birth rates, abortion rates for teens in the United States remain higher than in other industrialized nations. • From 1995 to 1997, the abortion rate for females 15 to 19 years of age decreased in 32 of the 43 geographic areas within the United States for which age-specific data were available51 • From 1995 to 1997, the abortion rate decreased 3.9 percent among females younger than 15 years of age (from 2.8 to 2.7 per 1,000), 10.1 percent among females 15 to 17 years of age (from 18.2 to 16.3 per 1,000), and 5.4 percent among females 18 to 19 years of age (from 39.6 to 37.5 per 1,000)52 • From 1995 to 1997, in 25 of the 31 geographic areas where both birth and abortion rates decreased, the decrease in abortion rates exceeded the decline in birth rates53 • In1996, the abortion rate for females 15 to 19 years of age in the United States was 29.2 per 1,000 compared to:54 o 1995—France 10.2 per 1,000 o 1996—Sweden 17.2 per 1,000 o 1995—Great Britain 18.4 per 1,000 o 1995—Canada 21.2 per 1,000 From 1995 to 1997, in 25 of the 31 geographic areas where both birth and abortion rates decreased, the decrease in abortion rates exceeded the decline in birth rates54 ABORTION RATES BY RACE/ETHNICITY All Women • In 1997, 1 per 1,000 women under the age of 15 had induced abortions compared with 1.5 per 1,000 in 199055 • In 1997, 17.4 per 1,000 women 15 to 17 years of age had induced abortions compared with 26.5 per 1,000 in 199056 • In 1997, 43.1 per 1,000 women 18 to 19 years of age had induced abortions compared with 57.9 per 1,000 in 199057 White Non-Hispanic Women • In 1997, 0.5 per 1,000 White women under the age of 15 had induced abortions compared with 0.8 per 1,000 in 199058 • In 1997, 11.6 per 1,000 White women 15 to 17 years of age had induced abortions compared with 21 per 1,000 in 199059 • In 1997, 28.4 per 1,000 White women 18 to 19 years of age had induced abortions compared with 46.5 per 1,000 in 199060 African American Women • In 1997, 3.4 per 1,000 African American women under the age of 15 had induced abortions compared with 5.4 per 1,000 in 199061 • In 1997, 40.6 per 1,000 African American women 15 to 17 years of age had induced abortions compared with 57.7 per 1,000 in 199062 • In 1997, 96.7 per 1,000 African American women 18 to 19 years of age had induced abortions compared with 117.4 per 1,000 in 199063 Hispanic Women • In 1997, 1.2 per 1,000 Hispanic women under the age of 15 had induced abortions compared with 1.1 per 1,000 in 199064 • In 1997, 21.9 per 1,000 Hispanic women 15 to 17 years 4 2 S I E C U S R E P O R T V O L U M E 3 0 , N U M B E R 3 of age had induced abortions compared with 24.3 per 1,000 in 199065 • In 1997, 55.7 per 1,000 Hispanic women 18 to 19 years of age had induced abortions compared with 59.5 per 1,000 in 199066 WHAT TEENS HAVE TO SAY ABOUT TEEN PREGNANCY • 88 percent of teens 12 to 19 years of age think the number of teenage pregnancies in the United States is a serious problem67 • Approximately 87 percent of teens 12 to 19 years of age say the teens they know think avoiding pregnancy is important68 • Approximately 41 percent of teens 12 to 19 years of age say they have learned the most about preventing teen pregnancy from teachers and sexuality educators, and 34 percent say they have learned about preventing teen pregnancy from parents and other adults69 • Approximately 63 percent of teens 12 to 19 years of age believe that other than teens themselves, parents, and adults are most responsible for fixing the problem of teen pregnancy70 • Approximately 67 percent of teens 12 to 19 years of age feel that if they were to offer advice to leaders in Washington regarding teen pregnancy, they would suggest greater emphasis on both encouraging teens not to have sexual relations and on birth control or protection71 • Approximately 85 percent of teens 12 to 19 years of age feel that there has been more focus on preventing teen pregnancy in the past five years72 PREGNANCY RISKS AND OUTCOMES • 94 percent of teens believe that if they were involved in a pregnancy they would stay in school; in reality, 70 percent eventually complete high school73 • 51 percent of teens believe that if they were involved in a pregnancy they would marry the mother/father; in reality, 81 percent of teenage births are to unmarried teens74 • 26 percent of teens believe that they would need welfare to support a child; in reality 56 percent receive public assistance to cover the cost of delivery and 25 percent of teen mothers receive public assistance by their early twenties75 • 32 percent of teens say they would consider an abortion; in reality, 50 percent of pregnancies to unmarried teens end in abortion76 REFERENCES 1. Facts in Brief,Teenagers’ Sexual and Reproductive Health: Developed Countries (New York, NY: The Alan Guttmacher Institute), www.agi-usa.org/pubs/fb_teens.html 2. S. J. Ventura, T. J. Mathews, and B. E. Hamilton, “Births to Teenagers in the United States, 1940-2000,” National Vital Statistics Reports (Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2001), September 25, vol. 49, no. 10, p. 4. 3. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), “National and State-Specific Pregnancy Rates among Adolescents—United States, 1995-1997,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, July 14, 2000, vol. 49, no. 27, p. 605. 4. J.A. Martin,B. E. Hamilton, S. J.Ventura, et al.,“Births: Final Data for 2000,” National Vital Statistics Reports (Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2002), February 12, vol. 50, no. 5, p. 6. 5. CDC, “National and State-Specific Pregnancy Rates among Adolescents—United States, 1995-1997,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, p. 607. 6. Ibid, p. 606. 7. Ibid. 8. Ibid. 9. J. E. Darroch, S. Singh, J. J. Frost, and the Study Team, “Differences in Teenage Pregnancy Rates among Five Developed Countries: The Roles of Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use,” Family Planning Perspectives,November/December 2001, vol. 33, no. 6, p. 246. 10. F. L. Sonenstein, K. Stewart, L. D. Lindberg, M. Pernas, and S. Williams, Involving Males in Preventing Teen Pregnancy: A Guide for Program Planners (Washington, DC:The Urban Institute, 1997), p 24. 11. S. J.Ventura,W. D. Mosher, S. C. Curtin, J. C. Abma, and S. Henshaw,“Trends in Pregnancy Rates for the United States, 1976- 97: An Update,” National Vital Statistics Reports (Hyattsville, MD: National Center for Health Statistics, 2001), June 6, vol. 49, no. 4., p 5. 12. Ibid. 13. Ibid. 14. Ibid. 15. Ibid. 16. Ibid. 17. Ibid., p. 6. 18. Ibid. 19. Ibid. 20. Ibid., p. 7. 21. Ibid. 22. Ibid. 23. S. J.Ventura,T. J. Mathews, et al., “Births to Teenagers in the United States, 1940-2000,” National Vital Statistics Reports, p.7. 24. J.A. Martin,B. E. Hamilton, et al.,“Births: Final Data for 2000,” F E B R U A R Y / M A R C H 2 0 0 2 S I E C U S R E P O R T 4 3 National Vital Statistics Reports, p. 4. 25. Ibid, p. 5. 26. Ibid. 27. Ibid., p. 4. 28. Ibid, p. 5. 29. J. E. Darroch, S. Singh, et al.,“Differences in Teenage Pregnancy Rates among Five Developed Countries: The Roles of Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use,” p. 246. 30. J.A. Martin,B. E. Hamilton, et al.,“Births: Final Data for 2000,” National Vital Statistics Reports, p. 30. 31. Ibid. 32. Ibid. 33. Ibid. 34. Ibid. 35. Ibid. 36. Ibid. 37. Ibid. 38. Ibid. 39. Ibid, p. 31. 40. Ibid. 41. Ibid. 42. Ibid. 43. Ibid. 44. Ibid. 45. Ibid, p. 9. 46. Ibid. 47. Ibid, p. 50. 48. Ibid. 49. Ibid. 50. Ibid 51. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “National and State-Specific Pregnancy Rates among Adolescents—United States, 1995-1997,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, pp. 605-607. 52. Ibid. 53. J.E. Darroch, S. Singh, et al.,“Differences in Teenage Pregnancy Rates among Five Developed Countries: The Roles of Sexual Activity and Contraceptive Use,” p. 246. 54. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “National and State-Specific Pregnancy Rates among Adolescents—United States, 1995-1997,” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, p 607. 55. S. J.Ventura,W. D. Mosher, et al.,“Trends in Pregnancy Rates for the United States, 1976-97: An Update,” National Vital Statistics Reports, p 5. 56. Ibid. 57. Ibid. 58. Ibid., p. 6. 59. Ibid. 60. Ibid. 61. Ibid. 62. Ibid. 63. Ibid. 64. Ibid, p. 7. 65. Ibid. 66. Ibid. 67. The National Campaign to Prevent Teen Pregnancy, With One Voice: America’s Adults and Teens Sound Off about Teen Pregnancy, A National Survey,April 2001, p. 4. 68. Ibid., p. 13. 69. Ibid., p. 18. 70. Ibid., p. 20. 71. Ibid., p. 25. 72. Ibid., p. 28. 73. The Kaiser Family Foundation, What They Say Teens Today Need to Know, and Who They Listen To (Menlo Park, CA: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation, 1996), Chart Pack, Chart 6. 74. Ibid. 75. Ibid. 76. Ibid.

 

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